Hydrostatic Combine Harvester
The Hydrostatic Combine Harvester
The Hydrostatic combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests, threshes, and cleans grain plants. The desired result is the seed (such as canola or flax) or grain (such as oats, wheat, or rye); a byproduct is loose straw, the remaining husk of the plant with all nutrients removed. The combine was patented in 1834 by Hiram Moore, the same year as Cyrus McCormick was granted a patent on the mechanical reaper.
Early combines, some of them quite large, were drawn by horse or mule teams and used a bull wheel to provide mechanical power. Tractor-drawn, PTO-powered combines were used for a time. These combines used a shaker to separate the grain from the chaff and straw-walkers (grates with small teeth on an excentric shaft)to eject the straw while retaining the grain. Tractor drawn combines evolved to have separate gas or diesel engines to power the grain separation. Today’s combines are self-propelled and use diesel engines for power. A significant advance in the design of combines was the rotary design. Straw and grain were separated by use of a powerful fan. Rotary combines were introduced in the late 1970’s. About this time on-board electronics were introduced to measure threshing efficiency. This new instrumentation allowed operators to get better grain yields by optimizing ground speed and other operating parameters.
- 1 Crop heads hydraulic operated
- 2 Sidehill levelling hydrostatic transmission
- 3 Maintaining threshing speed hydrostatically
- 4 The Threshing Process variable speed hydrostatic transmission
- 5 Combine harvesters in popular culture using hydrostatic transmissions
- 6 External links
John Deere 9410 Hydrostatic Combine set to harvest Oats.
Hydrostatic combine harvesting corn.
Hydrostatic Combines are equipped with removable heads that are designed for particular crops. The standard head, sometimes called a grain platform, is equipped with a sickle bar mower, and features a revolving reel with metal or plastic teeth to cause the cut crop to fall into the head. A cross auger then pulls the crop into the throat. The grain platform is used for many crops, including grain, legumes, and many seed crops.
Wheat heads are similar except that the reel is not equipped with teeth. Some wheat heads, called “draper” heads, use a fabric or rubber apron instead of a cross auger. Draper heads keep the crop orientation uniform, feeding grain headfirst into the throat, which allows slightly more efficient threshing.
Dummy heads feature spring-tined pickups, usually attached to a heavy rubber belt. They are used for crops that have already been cut and placed in windrows.
While a grain platform can be used for corn, a specialized corn head is ordinarily used instead. The corn head is equipped with snap rolls that strip the stalk and leaf away from the ear, so that only the ear (and husk) enter the throat. This improves efficiency dramatically since so much less material must go through the cylinder. The corn head can be recognized by the presence of points between each row.
Occasionally rowcrop heads are seen that function like a grain platform, but have points between rows like a corn head. These are used to reduce the amount of weed seed picked up when harvesting small grains.
Self propelled Gleaner combines could be fitted with special tracks instead of tires to assist in harvesting rice.
Sidehill levelling Using Hydrostatic Drive Combines
An interesting technology is in use in the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest in which the combine is retrofitted with a hydraulic sidehill levelling system. This allows the combine to harvest the incredibly steep but fertile soil in the region. Hillsides can be as steep as a 50% slope. Gleaner, Case/International Harvester, John Deere and others all have made combines with this sidehill levelling system and local machine shops have fabricated them as an aftermarket add on. Linked pictures below show the technology.
The first levelling technology was Developed by Holt Co., a California firm, in 1891. Ag Power Mag, Sept 2001Many Years later modern levelling came into being with the invention and patent of a level sensitive mercury switch system invented by Raymond (Haywire) Hanson in 1946. Rahco.com, 2005. Hanson’s company Rahco, Inc. still produces levelling systems exclusively for John Deere combines.
Sidehill levelling has several advantages. Primary among them is an increased threshing efficiency on sidehills. Without levelling grain and chaff slide to one side of separator and come through the machine in a large ball rather than being separated, dumping large amounts of grain on the ground. By keeping the machinery level the straw-walker is able to operate more efficently and this problem is eliminated for more efficient threshing. Case International produced the 453 combine which leveled both side-to-side and front-to-back thus enabling efficient threshing whether on a sidehill or climbing a hill head on.
Secondarily, levelling changes a combine’s center of gravity relative to the hill and allows the combine to harvest along the contour of a hill without tipping over. The danger is very real on the steeper slopes of the region and it is not uncommon for combines to roll on extremely steep hills.
Currently sidehill levelling is on the decline with the advent of huge modern machines which are more stable due to their width. These modern combines use the rotary grain separator which makes leveling less critical. Most combines on the Palouse are equipped with dual drive wheels on each side to stabilize the machine.
Maintaining threshing speed using Hydrostatic Transmissions
Claas Lexion 570
Another technology that is sometimes used on combines is a continuously variable Hydrostatic transmission. This allows the ground speed of the machine to be varied while maintaining a constant engine and threshing speed. It is desirable to keep the threshing speed since the machine will typically have been adjusted to operate best at a certain speed.
The Threshing Process, is adjusted using a Hydrostatic Drive
Despite great advances mechanically and in computer control, the basic operation of the combine harvester has remained unchanged almost since it was invented.
First of all the header, described above, cuts the crop and feeds it into the concave. This consists of a series of rasp barsfixed across the path of the crop and in the shape of a quarter cylinder, guiding the crop upwards through a 90 degree turn. Moving rasp bars pull the crop through the concave and separate the grain from the straw. The grain heads fall through the fixed rasp bars onto the sieves. The straw exits the top of the concave onto the straw walkers.
There are usually two sieves, one above the other. Each is a flat metal plate with holes set according to the size of the grain. The holes in the top sieve are set larger than the holes in the bottom sieve. Anything that falls through the bottom sieve is assumed to be grain, and is transported to the grain tank.
The sieves are mounted at a slight incline and shake, further separating the grain. A powerful fan blows from the front of the sives to remove chaff (wheat) or haynes (barley). If the fan is set too high it will blow grain off the back of the sives and out of the combine. If it is set too low then chaff/haynes will be present in the grain.
Heavy material, e.g., unthreashed heads, fall off the front of the sieves and are returned to the concave for re-threshing.
The straw walkers are located above the sieves, and too have holes in. Any grain remaining attached to the straw is shaken off and falls onto the top sieve.
When the straw reaches the end of the walkers it falls to the floor. A straw chopper may be fitted if the straw is unwanted.
Setting the concave clearance, fan speed, and sieve size is critical to ensure than the crop is threshed properly, the grain is clean of debris, and that all of the grain entering the machine reaches the grain tank. ( Observe, for example, that when travelling uphill the fan speed must be reduced to account for the shallower gradient of the sieves.)
Combine harvesters in popular culture, all use hydrostatic Drives
- British Scrumpy and Western group The Wurzels had a number one hit in 1976 with The Combine Harvester. It takes the form of a love song from the point-of-view of a farmerwho proposes marriage to his girlfriend, offering to give her the key to the “brand-new combine harvester” to use on her 43 acres of arable land.
- Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas features combine harvesters. CJ had to use one to bring to his friend on some mission.
External links for hydrostatic Drives
- Pictures of combines with corn and wheat heads
- History of Sunshine Harvesters – Museum of Victoria, Australia
- The IH 151 an early levelling machine
- Pictures of Gleaner levelling combines hydrostatically driven
- Excellent picture of a levelling John Deere with the header removed to show the modified undercarriage and extreme leveling ability as well as pictures of the region
Combine harvesters in popular culture
- British Scrumpy and Western group The Wurzels had a number one hit in 1976 with The Combine Harvester. It takes the form of a love song from the point-of-view of a farmer who proposes marriage to his girlfriend, offering to give her the key to the “brand-new combine harvester” to use on her 43 acres of arable land.
- Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas features combine harvesters. CJ had to use one to bring to his friend on some mission.
- Pictures of combines with corn and wheat heads
- History of Sunshine Harvesters – Museum of Victoria, Australia
- The IH 151 an early levelling machine
- Pictures of Gleaner levelling combines
- Excellent picture of a levelling John Deere with the header removed to show the modified undercarriage and extreme leveling ability as well as pictures of the region
Often when IH combines are discussed the Axial-Flow System comes to mind. International produced walker combines through 1976. One of the last walker machines was the 815 combine. The 815 came with grain header sizes between 10 and 24 feet and corn heads 4 and 5 row wide. The 815 came with a 144-hp gas or 128-hp diesel engines. A large 133 bushel grain tank was standard. One of the advantages of the 15 series combines was their low profile design which permits movement through 12-ft high openings.
It took 15 years and a million man hours to design , build and test but in 1977 International Hydrostatic Harvester introduced the 1440, 1460, 1480, and later the 1420 Axial-Flow Hydrostatic driven combines series. The Axial-Flow Hydrostatic System featured a single in-line rotor with impeller on the front rotor and a stationary rotor housing with concaves and separating grates. This simple system the
cylinder, rear beater and straw walkers of the IH 15 series conventional combines.
The 1977 and 1978 Axial Flow Hydrostatic driven Combines continued to use the 810 grain header series used on the late 15 series combines. In 1979 the 820 series headers were introduced.
International Harvester’s First Generation of Self-Propelled Soon to be Hydrostatic Driven Combines
Little Did He Know,That Hydrostatic Power would Follow.
In July 1831 Cyrus Hall McCormick launched his reaper which allowed for the mechanical harvest of grain. Labor time in the field was greatly reduced by the McCormick reaper and it brought sweeping changes to harvesting practices in the 19th century. McCormick Harvesting Co. and several reaper other companies formed in the second half of the 19th century and competed against each other fiercely. On August 12, 1902 Mccormick Harvesting and four other major reaper companies in a major $120 million agreement merged into one Company named International Harvester. The companies forming IHC included the Mccormick Harvesting Machine Company, Deering Harvester Company, Plano Machine Company, Champion, Wardner, Bushnell & Glessner Company and the Milwaukee Harvester Company. In 1981 the International Harvester Corporation celebrated its 150th Anniversary. Combines marked an important part of International Harvesters machine linage and business. Today CaseIH carries on over 170 years of harvesting tradition founded in McCormick’s introduction of the first practical reaper.
IH 1440 Combine Hydrostatic driven
Jim Schroer an IH enthusiast, Service Technician at Pioneer Garage, (a CaseIH dealership in South Dakota) and well known mechanical tip person on various internet machine talk boards has authored a detailed history of the 25 years of the Axial Flow combine for Toy Tractor Show.com. Jim’s articles show the impressive mark the Axial-Flow combine has made on grain harvesting. Before we look at one of the most modern harvesting innovations from the proud red line we will look back at the harvesting heritage of International Harvesters self propelled combines.
IH Pull Type Combines
International Harvester first experimented with a harvester-thresher in 1913. In 1915 IHC offered its first combine. At that time horse drawn implements were the most common and it took all sorts of horse hitching equipment to line up 8 to 10 horses to move one machine. By 1925 IHC was offering tractor drawn combines.
IH No. 125-SP Combine
In 1949 the 123-SP was upgraded to model 125-SP with a few minor updates. In 1950 an improved 125-SPV was released and in 1952 the 125-SPVC with the option of a 10ft, 12ft and 14ft grain header.
IH No. 141 Combine with No. 22 Corn Head
1954 marked a major improvement for season long use of IH combines in the Midwest and the East Coast. The 6 cylinder No. 141-SP combine produced from 1954-1957 was the first harvester to offer a corn head in the IH line. IH Corn heads would out pace corn pickers in less than a decade and the year 1974 marked the last year of IH corn picker production. The 141-SP allowed farmers to harvest small grain crops in the summer and then use the same machine in the fall to shell two rows of corn on the go in the field. SP-141 also was available with 10ft, 12ft and 14ft grain headers.
IH No. 101 Combine
In 1956 IH offered a smaller combine called the No. 101. This proved to be a popular machine on moderate sized farms. It was the right size, right capacity and the right versatility for grain, bean and corn growers. The 58hp, 6 cylinder powered combine could handle 10ft, 12ft and 14ft grain headers and a 2 row corn head. The 101 featured a long 28 inch separator.
IH No. 151 Combine
1959 brought even larger harvesting capacity to the IH combine line. The No. 151 combine weighed in with 75 hp IH engine, big 37 inch separator and was available with 12ft, 14ft and 16ft grain headers as well as 2 and 4 row corn heads. The 151 was available side hill leveling as an option.
IH No. 91 Combine
In 1959 IH introduced a unique self-propelled combine that was lever controlled and could turn in its own tracks. The No. 91 combine was not driven by a steering wheel but rather by levers that controlled the power to the drive wheels, similar to today’s modern zero turn lawn mowers. The 91 was available with an 8 1/2 ft or 10ft grain head and the No. 22 tow row corn head. This combine is the only IH combine that was not manufactured at the East Moline combine plant. The 91 was produced at the same plant in Canada that International Harvester swathers were produced at.
IH No. 181 Combine
IH combine size really took off with introduction of the giant N0. 181. In its day it was unequaled in capacity. The 80hp 181 was designed to stand up to the rigors of bigger yields, expanding acreage and larger expectations. The 181 had tremendous internal capacity with a 46 inch separator that could handle a standard of 4 rows of corn and 12, 14, 16 and a big 18ft grain platforms.
IH No. 151 Specialty Combine
IH offered specialty combines first offered in the late 1950’s. These machines went above and beyond the call of duty that was required in just wheat and corn crops. The No. 101, 151, and 181 combines were also offered as Rice Specials. Mccormick rice combines were built with power, strength, flotation and capacity to hold up in the harsh conditions rice fields present. Big rice tires were available to pull IH Mccormick series combines through soft spots with plenty of clearance under the axles. Foraged steel tracks were also available for extra middy conditions. The McCormick No. 91, 101 and 151 combines were available as bean specials for harvesting had grade dry beans like kidney and great northern beans. These machines were popular in Western, NY, Wyoming, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Edible Bean combines were adapted with windrow headers built with steel fingers to get down under windrows and gently raise them to the platform. Because beans are cut and windowed close to the ground the steel pick up fingers were wide spaced so fewer stones found there way into the combine.
The Big Tough Rugged Line
The Big Tough Rugged Line brings more grain to the elevator
In 1962 International Harvester unleashed a new big, tough and rugged line of big capacity, grain saving combines. The new combine series had 26% more room on the operators deck over the first generation combines, a fully-padded posture seat with adjustments to fit the tall and short and the availability of a cab. Not only was comfort improved but ease of operation was increased. The new series had hydrostatic power steering, hydrostatic drive that provided infinite speed control without clutching or shifting. The new big combines from International had modern sleek safety shields to cover the drives and the separator.
IH No. 303 Combine with a 42 inch 2 row corn head
The No. 303 Hydrostatic Driven combine was the smallest of the new IH combines in 1962. The 65 hp 303 combine had a standard 55 bushel grain tank and could hold up to 83 bushels with a bin extension. The 303 was fitted for 10 1/12, 13 or 14 ft grain platforms and 2 and 3 row corn heads.
IH No. 403 Hydrostatic Combine is at home in rice and wheat
The No. 403 Hydrostatic was IH’s most popular selling combine in the 1960’s. It was produced from 1962 to 1970. In 1966 the 403 was upgraded to hydrostatic drive. This was a giant step in combine design and operation ease. The 403 was well equipped for power with an International C-263 engine rated at 90 hp. Header options for the 403 included grain headers from 13 to 18 1/2 ft and 2, 3 and 4 row corn heads.
IH No. 503 Combine is an acre eater with a 20 1/2 ft grain head and 6 row corn head
International offered the mega combine of the 1960’s with model No. 503 Hydrostatic. The 503 Hydrostatic combine was rated at 106 hp and could handle a maximum 106 bushels of grain in its bin. The 503 was available with a standard 4 row corn head or a large 6 row head for big farms in the corn belt. Grain heads from 13ft to 20 1/2 feet were available for the 503. 503’s could be ordered from IH as Corn and Wheat machines or with special options for Rice and Edible Bean harvest. The 503 was sold from 1962 to 1968.
IH No. 203
All new for 1963 was the IH No. 203 Hydrostatic combine. This model featured twin grain tanks that could hold up to 53 bushels. The 203’s engine was top mounted and rated at 55 hp. The 203 was a perfect and economical for the smaller farmer who raised grain. The 203 was larger than the largest combine IH had offered just a decade before. The 203 hydrostatic was built to handle a 2 row corn head and 10 and 13ft grain heads. The 203 helped a farmer who raised grain and row crops get more combine for his dollar.
IH No. 403 Hillside Hydrostatic Combine
The No. 403 Hillside Hydrostatic Combine was introduced in 1963 and offered through 1969. The exclusive IH four way leveling system on the 403 provided better traction and grain handling on hillsides and steep slopes. It also added safety to the harvest. The Hillside Hydrostatic 403 featured a larger IH C-282 six cylinder engine over the standard Hydrostatic 403.
IH’s combine slogan in the 1960’s was “the people who bring you Hydrostatic combines that work.”
Big Combines for the 1970’s
The International Harvester 15 Series Hydrostatic Combines were launched in 1968.
When International Harvester introduced the 15 series combines in 1968 the company had been building self-propelled combines for 26 years and had over a half century of experience in the combine business. The 15 series were the most luxurious combines from IH to date. The series included the 315, 615, 715, 815 and 915. The Hydrostatic combines had space age features inside roomy air-conditioned cabs equipped with an electronic digital monitoring system and gauges and controls were positioned for easy operation. In the decade of the 1970’s IH combines grew up. IH introduced its “Big Mouth” combines with 48 inch wide cylinders on the the 815 and 815 combines. The 915 was IH’s largest hydrostatic combine to date offering the power and capacity to handle an 8 row corn head. IH was also ready to meet the smaller operators needs in the 1970’s with a range of combines that shared IH big combine features in a smaller package.
The IH 315 was the a new multi-crop combine with hydrostatic drive. It was long on power and capacity with a 72 hp engine, 42 inch wide separator and 70 bushel dual grain tanks. IH 315 combines could be matched with 10 1/2, 13 or 14 foot grain platforms and 2 row wide or 3 row wide or narrow corn heads. Cabs were optional. Rice special 315 models were available.
IH 315 Combine
IH 615 Combine
Offered from 1968 to 1975 the 615 combine was available in conventional belt-drive or hydrostatic drive. Many of IH’s proven combine features were standard on the 615. One of the biggest new features found on the 615 was the all new Quick-Attach grain and corn heads. A new variable speed cylinder and fan was added to the 615 to improve the combines threshing quality. The 80hp 615 was available with an IH C-263 gasoline engine or a diesel IH D-282 engine. IH 615 combines were built to handle 10, 13, 15 ft grain heads and 2 and 3 row corn heads with settings from 28 to 40 inches. The 615 came from the factory with an 83 bushel grain bin.
IH 715 hydrostatic Combine
In 1971 International introduced the 715 combine. It can be considered a 615 combine plus. The 715 shared many features with the smaller 615 and offered several upgrades including larger grain handling capacity with standard 96 bushel grain bin and more horse power with an IH C-301 gasoline engine rated at 107 hp or a the 95 hp IH D-301 diesel engine. The 715 was equipped to handle grain heads from 10 to 20ft and several variations of 2, 3 and 4 row corn heads with 28 to 40 inch settings.
IH 815 hydrostatic Combine
The International Harvester 815 combine was announced in 1968. Eight grain headers were available for the 815, ranging from 10 to 24 ft. In addition, corn heads could be purchased in 4 and 5 row sizes. IH offered both gasoline and diesel engines including the V-304 or V-345, V-8 gasoline styles and the D-407 or D-414, six-cylinder diesel engines. The 815 and 915 combines were the first IH combine to offer a turret hydro swing auger. This new auger allowed the operator to position the grain spout hydraulically where he needed it while unloading to distribute truck loads evenly. The unloading spout was 11 ft high and made clearing even the largest trucks and wagons easy.
IH 915 hydrostatic Combine
Monitor control was first introduced on the big 915 combine in 1968. This feature provided a reliable means of monitoring combine functions. The 915 was a big step up in combine capacity for IH with a 150 hp DT414 engine and a standard 146 bushel grain bin. The 915 was the first combine from IH that could handle an 8 row head. Unloading all 146 bushels was not a problem on the 915. The 12 inch turret hydro swing auger standard on the 915 and 815 combines could crank grain out of the bin at 1.9 bushels per second. In less than 80 seconds a farmer could have the truck full and be back in the field harvesting.
IH 915 Hydrostatic Combine Rice Combine and Edible Bean Hydrostatic Combine
The 15 series rice combines were well suited for big rice operations. The IH 915 Hydrostatic rice combine offered a 116 bushel bin, the 815 rice 106 bushels and the 715 rice 65 bushels. The Hydrostatic rice combines included the standard equipment found on the corn and grain IH combines with extras such as a spike tooth cylinder and concave in place of a rasp bar, raised leveling auger, feed conveyor divider sheet, special mud shields and an adjustable guide wheel axle. The 15 series Hydrostatic models listed above were also offered as an edible bean combines. The edible bean combines offered a bucket type grain elevator, special slow/high speed variable cylinder drive, stone retarder, perforated screens and a raised leveling auger on the 116 bushel 915 to prevent scuffing.
IH 453 Hillside Hydrostatic Combine
From 1970 to 1978 International offered the 453 Hillside Hydrostatic Combine. The 453 was the predecessor of the 403 Hillside. The Hillside Combine was the one IH combine that did not receive 15 series upgrades and styling. It would not be until 1980 that IH would offer a large modern hillside combine. The 453 was an efficient way to harvest grain in rough sloping terrain. IH offered the only 4-way leveling combine on the market. Not only did the 453 level on sidehills but it also leveled up and down hill as well. Because the 453 leveled fore and aft as well as side to side, grain would not spill out or bunch up in the grain pan. The 453 was available with both diesel and gasoline engines rated at 122 hp. Its 80 bushel grain bin could handle input from a 16 1/2 and 18 1/2 ft grain heads.
The Next Step: 2100 Series Hydrostatic
Proven Hydrostatic power and hydrostatic performance with a modern look
Going into 1995, many changes were taking place at CaseIH. Case became a company all its own, instead of being a subsidiary of Tenneco. Case stock was offered to the public, and became known as the Case Corporation. CaseIH, the agricultural division of Case Corp., unveiled a new logo, which had replaced the old “Case” and “IH” logos used since the CaseIH merger. CaseIH’s first new product offerings featuring the new CaseIH logo were the 2100 series Axial-Flow hydrostatic combines.
A Hydrostatic cab with a view
While many looked at the 2100 series combines as “new sizzle on an old steak”, it is important to realize there were many changes besides the one most apparent-an all-new cab design. The heavy-duty final drives (standard on all 2188s and 2166s/2144s with duals, optional on all other hydrostatic 2166/2144 combines) were considerably heavier (57% more weight, bearings with 33% more load-carrying capacity) than those used on previous 1600 series combines. It was obvious that farmers were going to have larger headers installed on these combines as their capacity increased, so larger final drives were going to be necessary to carry the extra weight. Also, dual wheels used 20 bolts to mount the wheels to the final drives, instead of 10 bolts used previously on 1600 series. The combination service brake/park brake was an all-new design. These brakes were multi-disc units that ran in oil all the time that required minimal pedal effort to actuate. The park brake utilized an all-new setup that would be used in most CaseIH agricultural equipment a few years later. The park brake applied with spring pressure, and was released with hydraulic pressure that was controlled by an electric-actuated solenoid valve. If either electricity to the solenoid was lost, or hydraulic supply pressure was lost, the park brake would engage immediately by itself. These brakes were a marked improvement over the ones used previously on 1600 series.
The Hydrostatic Inside Story
The hydraulic/ hydrostatic system on the 2100 series was completely redesigned from 1600 series as well. The 2100 series hydraulic/hydrostatic system utilized a pressure & flow-compensated hydraulic pump for its main functions, similar to what tractors had been using for years before. This pump creates very little flow when there is no demand on the hydraulic system, saving horsepower and fuel while creating less heat in the hydraulic/ hydrostatic system. This pump was used for steering, header lift/lower, unloader swing in/out, reel lift, reel fore/aft, and Field Tracker functions. A gear pump, which was mounted in tandem with the PFC pump, supplied oil for the hydraulic reel drive as well as brake functions, unloader on/off function, and the separator engage/disengage on the 44 & 66 models. Feeder lift cylinders were larger in diameter, requiring only 2 lift cylinders as opposed to 3 used on 1600 series models. Other improvements included a bigger alternator(135 amp rating), 40% heavier bearings and flanges on the straw chopper, larger diameter shafts for the clean grain auger on the 2188 and tailings auger on all models. Serviceability was improved by means of a front step on the feeder house, a ladder and service deck on the RH side of the cab, access panels on both sides of the hydrostatic combine that opened with ease due to a gas cylinder which reduced operator effort, batteries relocated to the LH side of the hydrostatic combine, a step and grab handle to allow easy access to the radiator, and numerous shields and panels which served a purpose in both safety and overall.
Unload and GO hydrostatic
The grain tank hydrostatic unloader system was speeded up 10% for faster unloading, and the accumulator was electrically-actuated by a “whisker switch” on the feeder house which allowed the accumulator to be used only when the feeder house was all the way up.
A new dawn for CaseIH Hydrostatic Combine Cabs
And then there was the cab. The first thing the farmer noticed was the deep, self-cleaning steps (borrowed from the Magnum tractor line) as he climbed the ladder into the cab. This ladder not only swung up alongside the combine during field use, but was also made to swing around in front of the LH drive wheel so as to allow narrower transport width and allowing the use of narrower corn heads without the ladder knocking down standing corn. Before he entered the cab, the farmer noticed a left-hand service door that allowed him to get a grain sample without getting into the grain tank by means of a “sample door”. He then noticed the LH cab “door” was made entirely of curved glass, allowing excellent visibility. As he sat down in the seat, the differences between the 2100 series and previous Axial-Flows became more clear. The cab was 8″ wider than previous models, and was surrounded by curved glass allowing unprecedented visibility. The cab was also centered above the feeder house, instead of being mounted off-center as was the case in the previous series of combines. The tilt steering wheel pedestal offered infinite positions and another lever allowed the steering wheel to pivot up and down on the pedestal. The cab mounts were aimed to a point just above the operator’s head, aligning the center of gravity of the cab and the operator at the center of the operator. This design, called “focalized cab mounting”, minimized bumps and vibrations, making the operator less tired after a long day in the combine. A passenger seat sat on top of a storage area that allowed the customer to carry anything from his lunch to some tools and spare parts for his machine. The heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system was completely redesigned on the 2100 series combines. The HVAC unit which contained the air-conditioner/heater coils was relocated to under the operator’s seat for easier service access. 13 air ducts were strategically placed throughout the cab for optimum airflow for operator comfort as well as windshield defrosting capabilities. Large dials were used to adjust the infinitely-variable fan speed and temperature control knobs. The temperature was controlled by an electronic sensor located in the HVAC coils, an HVAC computer, and an electronic heater valve. HFC-134A refrigerant was first used in CaseIH combines starting with the 2100 series. The cab was pressurized by another cab blower motor that ran all the time that the engine had oil pressure, and air was constantly recirculated within the cab by a cab filter located directly behind the operator seat. The fresh air coming into the cab was ran through a small, round cab filter located behind the LH service door. Six worklights mounted on top of the cab offered “stadium lighting” when working at night. An optional lighting package allowed 2 aftercut lights, and 2 lights mounted on the side of the grain tank. Also, 3 fully retractable “troublelights” mounted on tether cords offered “on the spot” lighting in case of a need to work on a certain area of the combine at night without needing a flashlight.
Comfort, convince and ease of operation all in one Hydrostatic combines
The console where the controls were located was no longer mounted to the cab, but to the operator’s seat itself, where it moved in unison with the seat. This console could be adjusted fore/aft in relationship to the operator, and the palm rest for the hydro handle was infinitely adjustable to fit all hand sizes. The hydro handle itself became a “mini-control center” as the following functions were located on it: header lift/lower, Field Tracker left/right manual tilt, unloader auger swing in/out, unloader on/off, reel fore/aft, reel raise/lower. A unique electrical arrangement allowed the unloader to shut off by itself when the unloader was swung all the way in, in case of an operator inadvertently forgetting to shut off the unloader when he swung the auger in. Under the armrest were additional controls for header raise speed, header lower speed, and minimum reel speed. Other console controls were for park brake on/off, 2-speed Hydro on/off, Power Guide Axle on/off, fan speed increase/decrease, rotor speed increase/decrease, and Field Tracker controls. A new feature on 2100 series Axial-Flows was the ability to open/close the concave from the cab by a switch.
Cutting grain was never so easy on an Axial-flow hydrostatic combine
Another new feature on 2100 series was the “Return to Cut” feature. This allowed the operator to preset a desired cutting height by using the AHHC knob. If the operator raised the header for any reason, he could return to the desired height by merely pushing the “header lower” button momentarily as long as the feeder was engaged. Also, a Float Control option was available. This was for headers that ran at extremely low heights. The pressure of the hydraulic oil in the lift cylinders was monitored in this mode. When the header would start to push harder(indicating the header may be pushing itself into the ground), the header was lifted up until nthe cylinder pressure would decrease. How much cylinder pressure was needed to do this was adjustable in the cab, as well as the rate of response. This application was designed for primarily European use and other applications where AHHC was not used. Reel speed controls were located on this console as well. Auto-reel-to-ground-speed became standard on 2100 series. A “corn position” was provided on the reel speed control for applications where no reel speed was desired.
High Tech Cab for the Hydrostatic combines
The RH corner post, commonly referred to as the “A” post, contained many displays, warning lights, and gauges. The bottom panel contained the grain loss monitor, which was pretty much the same as the one used on 1600 series. The middle panel contained an optional header height indicator, which used a potentiometer mounted on the LH side of the feeder house to indicate to the operator how high or low his feeder house was. Also on the middle panel was the industry’s first dual display tachometer/speedometer. The top portion could display either engine RPM or cleaning fan RPM, while the bottom display could display ground speed or rotor speed. These displays could also be used in conjunction with the buttons below them to monitor total acres harvested, separator and engine hours, adjust calibration settings for header width on the acre counter, feeder cutoff and spreader alarm, engine speed alarm, tire size adjustment, English/metric setting, and low fuel alarm setting. The display would alert the operator when the unloader auger was on and when the fuel level was below the preset limit. The upper portion of the middle panel contained the shaft speed monitor, which was redesigned on 2100 series combines. A silhouette of a combine was used as a background to show the operator where the problem area was in relationship to the combine. Also, the shaft speed monitor was operational only if the machine was above 1800 engine RPM to eliminate nuisance warning alarms at lower engine RPMs. The top panel of the “A” post contained numerous gauges and warning lights to alert the operator of specific problems with the combine. The gauges monitored fuel tank level, coolant temperature, and battery voltage. Warning lights monitored problems relating to alternator function, engine oil pressure, excessive coolant temperature, low coolant level, hydraulic fluid level, excessive oil temperature, and air conditioner system pressures. Additional lights alerted the operator when his grain tank was full, unloading auger was swung out, unloading auger was on, and when the park brake was on. The cab of the 2100 series combine truly became a “command center” for the operator, allowing the operator to know everything that was going on with his machine while making the job of operating a combine less tiresome.
MAGNUM Tractor Power Maximizes Hydrostatic Harvest Efficiency
As far as engines and horsepower were concerned, there were very little changes between the late 1644/66/88 combines and the first 2100 series combines. It was felt that the horsepower savings offered by the PFC hydraulic system would make these combines seem to have more horsepower without actually having to offer a bigger engine. Magnum tractor engine technology was shared with Axial-Flow combines to provide plenty of reserve power and durability to take grueling punishment a combine engine takes during harvest.
New Grain Headers for a New Hydrostatic Combine
1010 & 1020 heads featured a new oil-bath enclosed sickle-drive gearcase. These offered more strength and reliability than the previous open-style wobble box used on 1010 & 1020 headers. Also, all headers became available with flashing amber lights for better safety when roading combines with the head still connected. Also, due to changes in the 2100 series electrical system, a new AHHC potentiometer was required for use on 1020 heads. While the new 2100 series pot. and the old 1600 series pot. look similar with identical plug-ins, they do not function the same and will not work in the wrong application.
Hydrostatic Combines Ready to work all day and night long
In 1996, many changes were done to the 2100 series of combines. First off, the 2166 & 88 combines had several changes done to the engine area as these engines now had to meet emissions requirements. New injection pumps, new injectors and injector lines, new pistons and cylinder heads were necessary to make these engines emissions compliant. Also, wastegate turbochargers were used. These new turbochargers gave the exhaust sound of these engines a different tone as compared to earlier engines. The wastegate turbos had a noticeably higher pitch, or squeal sound. Also, radiator size was increased on the 2 bigger machines as well as a fuel cooler was added to help the engines meet emissions. Interestingly, the 2144 engine was actually derated so as not to have to meet emissions specs. Emissions specs. were required in 1996 on all off-road diesel engines of 175HP or more, therefore the 2144 was derated from 180 engine HP to 174 HP.
2188 cutting corn like a knife through butter using Hydrostatic power
The 2188 was introduced with a 3-strand feeder chain in 1996. This design helped to eliminate feeder slat bending, which was common on previous 80 series combines. The clean grain elevator drive sprocket became a dual-sprocket design which allowed a higher elevator speed in high-yielding conditions, yet retained the regular elevator drive speed to be used in normal crops. To change speeds, all the operator had to do was slide the sprocket over on its shaft (on 88 models) or removed from the shaft and flipped around(44 & 66 models). Rubber seal extensions were added to the back ends of the shoe sieve to help prevent loss of grain from going over the sides of the shoe sieve. A new “shielded” wiring harness was introduced for the grain loss monitor system, which eliminated interference from other electrical sources on the combine from causing faulty readings on the grain loss monitor. The unloader auger was factory-installed starting in 1996-previous combines had the outer horizontal auger installed at the dealership. Also, a new 500 lb. rotor drive torque sensor spring was introduced for use in oilseed crops where rotor belt slippage had occurred. The original “non-Field Tracker” header lift switch was discontinued due to reliability problems; the Field Tracker version of the header lift switch became the standard switch on all models.
Advanced Farming System Using Hydrostatic Power and computer systems
However, probably the most celebrated change to the Axial-Flow combine in 1996 was the availability of a combination yield monitor/GPS mapping system which allowed the operator to pinpoint areas in his fields where yield was greatest, poorest, needed the most improvement, etc. CaseIH referred to this system as AFS- Advanced Farming Systems. The yield monitor consisted of a sensor located in the elevator head which measured the amount of grain flowing past it, and a sensor located in the inclined delivery auger on 88 models (optional on 66 models) or mounted on the horizontal grain tank auger (standard on 66/44 models) that measured the temperature of the grain and the moisture of the grain. In the cab was a monitor (commonly referred to as the “black box” style monitor) that offered the operator instant readouts for moisture, yield, total bushels, average moisture, etc to help him make decisions about future farming practices, crop varieties, etc. as well as keeping track of different fields, hybrids, crops, etc. It was to be used as a management tool for the operator. The farmer could also equip the yield monitor with an optional GPS system to help him pinpoint where exactly in the field he had his best yields, poorest yields, etc. The GPS system was made by Satloc and offered sub-meter accuracy. The “black box” monitor was built to CaseIH spec. by Ag-Leader. Either the yield monitor or GPS system could be installed at the factory or field-installed at a later date. 1997 brought out another series of changes for the 2100 series combines. A tilting rear window in the cab replaced the previous fixed-design window, allowing ease of cleaning the window in dirty conditions. The cab filter was redesigned for better cab filtration, with the new filter having 4 times more capacity than the previous design. The previous design’s cab filter was inadequate in capacity and needed cleanings too frequently. This new design used a much larger filter(similar to an engine air cleaner) mounted above the RH drive tire behind the RH access door. Cab noise was reduced due to the addition of an attenuator to the hydro circuit. It acted as a muffler to reduce the noise created by hydraulic oil bypassing the foot-n-inch valve under the cab when the hydrostat lever was advanced quickly in road gear. A new park brake warning system consisted of a pressure switch mounted in the park brake circuit, which warned the operator of pressure drops in the park brake circuit by turning on the park brake light on the “A” post. A new feeder jackshaft was introduced as well. A new cast iron pulley on the jackshaft replaced the pressed-steel triple groove pulley used previously. The new pulley fit the shaft by way of a splined-fit instead of using a keyway used previously. Also, heavier bearings were used on the new shaft. The feeder hinge plate at the rear end of the feeder house was made of thicker material for longer life. Upper stops on the Field Tracker were stronger and a lower pivot support was added for better reliability and better sealing to minimize grain loss. A big change occurred in the mounting of the final drives. New heavier, larger flanges allowed the final drives to be mounted to the combine with 13 bolts, nearly double the 7-bolt design used previously. This offered greater reliability when these combines were used with heavier headers and higher loads placed on the axle assembly. The final drive driveshaft lock collars were changed from a design that used a bolt in the middle to lock the coupler to the shafts to a design that used a 2-piece locking collar and snap ring to hold the coupler in place on the shafts. The center section of the rear axle on non-Power Guide Axle units had material added in the pivot pin area and the axle material thickness was increased from 5/16″ materila to 3/8″ material for added strength. A plate was added to the rotor drive coupling to retain the bushings in the coupler better. In some crops where the rotor turned real slow(most notably in sunflowers and edible beans), the rotor would move ahead slightly, pulling the bushings out of the hub, which in turn broke the bolts in the drive coupler. Hoses replaced the 3 steel tubes used previously between the hydro pump and motor. The area around the rotor front cover had seals added to it to eliminate dust and dirt buildup in this area. The LH lower access panels now had a detent added to them to hold them in place when they were open in windy conditions or on unlevel ground. There were also several improvements in the unloader system. The shear bolts for the unloader were changed to a grade 2 strength for better protection of the unloader system. The coupling between the 2 halves of the unloader was changed for better reliability as well. Previously, a hex shaft had been welded to the auger half closest to the turret that fit into a female hex fitting in the other auger half. The new design had a female hex fitting on both halves of the auger with a floating hex shaft connecting the 2 augers together. This eliminated the possibility of the welded shaft breaking, severely damaging parts of the unloader system. Also, a gusset was added on the outer flighting of the unloader auger to eliminate the end of the auger flighting from folding over from grain buildup at the downspout. Rivets on the turret assembly were changed from 1/4″ to 5/16″ to reduce the possibility of pulling out through the sheet metal. Also, 8 more rivets were added to this area. The grain tank sensor could be adjusted up or down through a 6″ range to let the customer adjust the point at which the “grain tank full” light turned on. Poly skid shoes were added as a factory-installed option on the 1020 flex head. The 2144 engine received a fuel cooler as it now had to meet emissions requirements for 1997. It remained rated at 174 HP. CaseIH also celebrated 20 years of the Axial-Flow by installing a decal on the cab door touting “20 years of Rotary Technology”.
CaseIH Dealer 20th Anniversary 2188 Model Hydrostatic Combine
Unfortunately, along the way through 2100 series production many different problems were discovered on early model (mostly 1995 and early 1996 machines) combines. CaseIH instituted a series of upgrade programs to rectify several problems. Transmissions were overhauled to install LocTite adhesive to differential ring gear bolts that were coming loose on early 2100 series combines. Structural supports were added to the separator frame, front axle, and cab support posts after it was determined that the original cab support structure was inadequate. A check valve was added to reduce brake operating pressure and aggressiveness in the brake system after complaints were received that the brakes worked “too good”. The speed of the unloader swing cylinder was slowed down as it was felt that the auger returned to its saddle too fast, leading to auger tube/saddle damage. Feeder lift cylinders were replaced with a newer design, and a thermal relief valve was added to the header lift circuit to bleed off excessive hydraulic pressure in hot ambient temperatures. Older model combines were updated to 1997-model cab air filter systems, and grain tank supports were installed due to grain tank sagging. All 1995 and 1996-model 2100 series equipped with factory duals were also updated to the 13-bolt final drive mounting setup. While the 2100 series were touted as a “modernized” Axial-Flow, there were still many new things to offer on the Axial-Flow combine. So many, that another series of combines would be offered, the 2300 series…..
The 2100 Series Hydrostatic Harvesting the “Fruited” plains
Follow the Axial-Flow Hydrostatic Combine Story through 2300 series on PartVIII
2300 Series Hydrostatic power
Coming to TTS Soon
All new 2003 2388 Rice Special Axial-Flow Hydrostatic
The NeXt generation AFX Axial-Flow Hydrostatic combines will be lead by a class 8 combine model number AFX 8010
In the year 2004 CaseIH will unveil its all new AFX Hydrostatic combine line. It will replace the popular 2300 series. With 171 years of harvesting experience behind it CaseIH has developed an Axial-Flow Hydrostatic combine to meet the demands of farmers in the 21st century. The AFX Series will offer exceptional performance. Improvements include the new AFX rotor, less belts and chains, more hydraulics/ hydrostatics and an inverted rotary air screen which gives engine a natural air flow, electronic controlled sieves and screens (programmable), all new cab, longer feeder house, bigger elevators, augers, as well as new updated cosmetics. These machines deliver more horsepower, more productivity and more comfort than ever before. There are only 2 belts and two chains on the machine all hydraulic rotor drive is hydraulic with reverser. The 8010 is reported to max out at 525 hp and is hooked up electronically to the rotor drive. So in tougher crops the engine will up the hp and in easier crops the hp will drop off to conserve fuel. The AFX will be produced along with New Holland’s CR combine with Twin-Rotor technology in Grand Island, Nebraska. The AFX combines will share common parts with the New Holland CR combine including the durable CNH frame, large grain tank from 205 to 330 bushels with foldable extensions and an industry leading 3 bushels per-second unloading rate from an auger that can accommodate heads up to 42ft. From their the new AFX is all CaseIH. The AFX Series combines still share a number of proven design elements with the original Axial-Flow introduced in 1977. The CaseIH AFX cab will make a 2300 owner feel right at home with the familiar features. Axial-Flow combines use a single rotor to thresh and separate grain, and create a vacuum of air that helps provide a clean operating environment. Conventional combines use up to 16 moving parts to do the same job. Because Axial-Flow hydrostatic combines use fewer moving parts, they are easier to operate, more reliable and less costly to maintain than conventional or more complex rotary designs Inside the new CaseIH hydrostatic combines. The new AFX rotor uses enhanced graduated pitch impellers to promote smooth crop flow and increase rotor throughput capacity in tough conditions by 5 to 25 percent. The top new CaseIH hydrostatic combine will likely be an AFX 8010, it will be a class 8 combine with around 370hp and a 330 bu hopper cable of handling up to 42 ft of header.
CaseIH Hydrostatic AFX 8010 harvesting Milo
We can handle all your hydrostatic needs.
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